Hatha Yoga Pradipika

There are six branches of Indian philosophies or darshana in Sanskrit. Sage Patanjali had founded his root of Indian philosophy called 「Yoga」. The term 「Yoga」 stands for the teachings of the Yoga Sutra of Patanjali. This is one of the six main branches of Indian philosophies. The other five branches of Indian philosophy systems are Nyaya, Vaisesika, Mimamsa, Samkhya and Vedanta


瑜伽是印度哲學六派分肢(印度古文:Darshana)其中之一派。瑜伽派哲學是本課的主要重點。瑜伽派哲哲學是由瑜伽宗師聖人,帕坦伽利創立的。他的寫作記載於他的作品叫「瑜伽經」。其他五個印度哲學門派分別是(一)正理論派(印度古文: Nyāya );(二)勝論派(印度古文: Vaisesika);(三)彌曼差(印度古文:Mimamsa);(四)數論派(印度古文:Samkhya);(五)吠檀多派(印度古文:Vedanta)。


1. Nyaya philosophy

Nyaya philosophy was founded by Aksapada Gautema who emphasized on reasoning and proofing; discussion of logics and principles of facts; understanding of the attaining of knowledge based on a branch of Greek philosophy called 「Epistemology」. He also explored topics involves principles of Metaphysics as well as the philosophy of existence; concept of identity; law of causality and the discussions on conscience.


正理論派(Nyāya Philosophy)

正理論派(Nyāya) 是由印度哲學家,目足.喬答摩(印度古文:Aksapada Gautema)創立的。這派哲學主要談論關於推理(reasoning), 論証(Proof)的原則同指引;對事情邏輯的研究同理論;研究智識的理論;怎麼正確地去獲得智識的學説(Epistemology);再加上研究形之上學,元物理學(Metaphysics);探討關於存在的意義(Existence);身份的特性(Identity);困果的論理(Causality)同意識的分析(Conscience)。


2. Vaisesika Philosophy

Vaisesika philosophy was founded by sage and natural physicist, Kanada. This branch of philosophy focuses on one, rightful act, behaviour and morals called 「Dharma」 in Sanskrit. Two, discussion on true spiritual identity called 「Atman」 in Sanskrit. Three, discussion on spiritual liberation and the relationship with yoga. Lastly, discussion on the formation of created reality based on the science of atomism.


勝論派(Vaisesika Philosophy)

勝論派(Vaisesika)是由印度聖人兼古印度自然物理學家(Natural Physicist), 羯那陀(印度古文:Kanada)創立的。主要是討論兩方面的學說,(一)正義的行為,態度,道德修行(印度古文:Dharma);屬靈真我(印度古文:Atman);瑜伽與解脫(印度古文:Yoga and Moksha)。(二)研究宇宙的創造;物質世界空間的特質根據自然學的原子論(Atomism)。

3. Mimamsa Philosophy

Mimamsa philosophy was founded by sage Jaimini. According to his work on Purva Mimamsa Sutra, it elaborated the rightful moral attainment due to the conducting of Vedic ceremony rituals and social servicing works. Discussion on the contexts of spiritual liberation attained by the proper duties and responsibilities of performing the Vedic ceremony rituals.


彌曼差派(Mimamsa Philosophy)

彌曼差派(Mimamsa)記載於古印度詩人憎侶,Jaimini 所寫作的作品稱Purva Mimamsa Sutra。作品主要描述透過古印度吠陀敬拜儀式同社會義務所得來的正義修行(Dharma);籍着哲學上的理由去遵守吠陀敬拜儀式;討論籍着正確地進行吠陀敬拜儀式的義務同特權而達到精神解脫(Moksha)。



4. Samkhya Philosophy

Samkhya philosophy was originally founded by Kapila around 500 BCE. His work called Samkhya Sutra contained 72 verses describing the principles of Samkhya philosophy. This branch of philosophy focused on the principles of thinking, analysis as well as counting and explanation on how matters are broken down; how qualities of matters are identified as well as description on identities of matters and individuals.


Isvara Krsna who composed his work called Samkhya Karika around 500AD explained the Samkhya philosophy similar to the original work of Samkhya Sutra.


Isvara Krsna wrote the Samkhya Karika (Number Theory Ode) in 350 A.D., which has about 72 verses. His work describes one of the ancient Indian schools of philosophy called Samkhya philosophy. The philosophy of 「number theory」 was founded by a man named Kapila around 500 BC during the Post-Veda period. His work, samkhya sutra, is an original work older than the self-black ode to number theory. 


 The approximate doctrine of the Samkhya philosophy:


a) It is a philosophy of the universe above All Things (Prove) and the Master of the Universe (Atheistic). One does not discuss who is the root of all things, but believes in the cause of all things. (Cause) is the same as believing that there is a source of all things. (Source)


b) It is a philosophy that separates reality from two kinds of reality. (a) Creatable Reality, known in Ancient Hindi as Vyakta. (ii) Non-Creatable Reality, avyakta in ancient Indian. This space of reality is a space that triggers everything to arise. (Reality of Cause)


c) The process of combining a space of reality (Avyakta) produced by a causative space that produces a supreme cosmic intelligence energy, The Ancient Hindi (Purusha) with the material basis of all things, Prakriti (Prakriti) 


d) From this combined process (Pradhana), the process of creating another space of reality (Vyakta) is called Creation


e) In a created reality space (Vyakta), all material life is characterized by gunas, all based on all matter (Prakriti). There are 3 types of characteristics of material life, the first of which is sattva with light, illumination, harmony, and positive energy. The second type of trait is the energy-filled, scattered, unstable name (Rajas). The third type of trait is one with a heavy, restrictive movement, blunt, clumsy name (Tamas).


f) By virtue of this combination of creation (Pradhana), a great and exalted wisdom of the universe is called Mahat in Hindi, (cosmic intelligence) in English. Evolved into the wisdom of the human mind called Buddhi in Ancient Hindi, (Intellect) English. Evolution from high intelligence (universe/man) to human identity/self-designation (Ahamkara) in Hindi, (Ego) in English. From the self of the human mind to the sense of perception in English, from the sense to the manas in ancient Hindi. Thinking is the part that determines knowledge and action. 


g) All worldly desires, suffering, success, satisfaction are all based on mentality. Manas); If you want to be liberated, you have to think about the cosmic high wisdom (Purusha). 


數論派(Samkhya Philosophy)

自在黑(Isvara Krsna)於公元後350年所寫作的數論頌(Samkhya Karika),數論頌大約有72句。他的作品描述古印度其中一門派哲學稱「數論」派哲學(Samkhya philosophy)。「數論」派哲學是由一個叫迦毗羅仙人(Kapila)大約於公元前500年作後吠咜期創立這哲學門派。他的作品稱數論經(Samkhya Sutra)是一本比自在黑的數論頌更古老的原創作品。






b)是一門哲學將現實空間(Reality)分別為兩種現實。(一)可以被創造的現實空間(Creatable Reality), 古印度文稱(Vyakta)。(二)不可以被創造的現實空間(Non-Creatable Reality), 古印度文稱(Avyakta)。這個現實空間是一個引發萬事產生的空間。(Reality of Cause)






e)在一個被創造的現實空間(Vyakta), 所有物質生命的特徵稱(Gunas),全部都建立在萬物物質基礎上(Prakriti)。物質生命的特徵有3類,第一類特質是帶有光明,照高,和諧,正能量稱(Sattva)。第二類特質是帶有充滿能量, 散耀不定,不穩定稱(Rajas)。第三類特質是帶有沉重,活動限制,鈍,笨拙稱(Tamas)


f)憑着這創造的結合(Pradhana),一個宇宙偉大高崇的智慧稱(Mahat)古印度文,(cosmic intelligence)英文。演進到人的思想智慧稱(Buddhi)古印度文,(Intellect)英文。由高智慧(宇宙/人)演進到人同物質的身份/自我稱(Ahamkara)古印度文,(Ego)英文。由人心靈的自我演進到人的感觀(sense of perception)英文,由感觀演進到 思為(Manas)古印度文。思為是決定知識同行動的部份。


g)所有世上的慾望(Desire),苦困(Suffering), 成就(Success),滿足度(Satisfaction)全都基於思為(Mentality/Manas);若果要解脫(Liberation), 須要向着宇宙高崇智慧(Purusha)去思想。



5. Vedanta Philosophy

Vedanta is another yoga philosophy in ancient Indian culture. The main doctrine is to summarize the ideas of yoga philosophy throughout the Vedic period. These include the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Vedanta Sutra, which is called the 「Three Classic Vedic Writings」  (Prasthana trayi)。 

Among them, there are three schools of Vedanta philosophy, (i) Advaita Vedanta, founded by the master Shankaracharya in 788 AD, and (ii) after 1017 AD, Ramanuja founded another version of the Vishishadvaita (3). In 1199 AD, Madhvacharya founded the 「dualism」 (Dvaita Advaita). 


Yoga Philosophical Teachings:

  1. The vedanta school of ancient Indian philosophy talks about the division of knowledge from fact, which is a so-called Indian philosophy called 「Indian Epistemology」

  2. According to the theory of knowledge, one of the most important doctrines is called Pramana. Three of the ways to draw the right knowledge are (i) Perception, Pratyaksha in Hindu Sanskrit. (ii) Testimony, Shabda in Hindu Sanskrit. (iii) Inference, Anumana in Indian. 

  3. Preserving the teachings of Upanishads in relation to the context of 「Reality」, as well as the context of spiritual liberation called 「Moksha,」 in Sanskrit. Discussion of the true spiritual identity 「Atman」 in Sanskrit. As well as the relationship between the 「True Self」 and the 「Brahman」. 「Brahman」 is the source that symbolizes the source of life in the universe, or the source of the wisdom of the supreme mind. 


吠檀多派(Vedanta Philosophy)

吠檀多是另一門古印度文化中的瑜伽哲學。主要的教義是總結整個吠陀期的瑜伽哲學的理念。其中包括所究讀的奧義書(Upanishads),博伽梵歌(Bhagavad Gita),終極韋達經(Vedanta Sutra)稱為「三大經典吠陀著作」(Prasthanatrayi)。

其中吠檀多哲學有分三大學派,(一)公元後788年,商羯羅大師(Shankaracharya)所創立的「不二論」(Advaita Vedanta),(二)公元後1017年,拉馬努亞(Ramanuja)所創立的另一個版本的「不二論」(Vishishadvaita),(三)公元後1199年,馬德亙查里亞(Madhvacharya)所創立的「二元論」(Dvaita Advaita)。



  • 吠檀多這一派古印度哲學談論有關對知識同事實的分折,這是所謂印度哲學中一門論理叫「知識論」(Indian Epistemology)

  • 根據「知識論」,其中一個重要的學說叫「量學」(Pramana)。「量學」是研究怎樣去吸取正確知識來源。其中三個吸取正確知識的方法是(一)經感觀(Perception),印度梵文(Pratyaksha)。(二)經論正(Testimony),印度梵文(Shabda)。(三)相比論(Inference),印度梵文(Anumana)。

  • 深入了解奧義書所談論的「現實」(Reality),「解脫」(Moksha),「思想」(Mind),思想中背後的「真我」(Atman),「真我」同「梵」(Brahman)之間的關係。「梵」是象徵宇宙生命之源(Source),或象徵領唔至高心靈智慧之源。

6. Yoga Philosophy

Yoga philosophy was founded by Sage Patanjali. The detail descriptions on his work are described in the section 「More About Yoga Sutra of Patanjali」.