Indus Civilization-A Yoga History

Updated: Feb 27

Dated back to 3300-1300 BCE, there were few ancient civilizations. First, Ancient Egypt, which is located in Africa, around the Nile River. Second, Ancient China which is located in Asia, around the Yellow River Valley. Third, Ancient India which is located between Northern India and Pakistan around the Indus Valley.


The origin of Yoga came from the Ancient India, Indus Valley Civilization. Within that civilization, resided a group of people who were farmers, archeologicalist, Indologists as well as religious founders know as Vedic priest.


The earliest form of local religion called Vedism or Brahmanism was the older version of Hinduism. Concurrently, there are other branch out of another religious culture called Jainism and later Buddhism.


公元前3300-1300 年,古代世界有四大文明古國:

1)位於非洲的尼羅河流域的古埃及,

2)位於兩河流域的古巴比佗,

3)位於古印度河流域的古印度,

4)位於亞洲黃河流域的古中國。


古印度河流域區大約位於印度西北部同巴基斯坦國之間。居住在河流域區的社會文明分別有不少的考古學家,歷史學家,印度國家研究者,印度教僧侶及詩人(Rishi)同吠陀牧師 (Vedic Priest)。


當時約公元前1300-500 年稱後吠陀期(Post Vedic Period),在古印度河流域文明中,國家的原始信仰為「吠陀教」(Vedism),或被稱為「婆羅門教 」(Brahmanism),婆羅門教同古印度河流域文族信念的融合成了古印度文化的國教「印度教」(Hinduism)。其中在這河流域文明中,又分肢了另一個古印度宗教文化叫「耆那教」(Jainism)。稍後期又有另一個古印度宗教文化分肢叫 「佛教」(Buddhism)。

Jainism「耆那教」

The founder of Jainism was Rishabhadeva who was known to be the 1st descendant (1st Tirthankara in Sanskrit). According to Jainism culture lineage, there were about 24 descendants of the Jainism lineage. Rishabhadeva was born in an ancient old Indian city called Ayodhya which was located at east of New Delphi. According to the Jainism time chronology, he was born 592x10 to the power 18 years ago, which was approximately around 400BCE. He died at a mountain called Mount Kailash/Mount Asthapada, by the time of his death, he was in the phase of liberation according to the Jainism tradition.


Then later on, the following descendants as 23rd Tirthankara was Parshvanath. And the last descendant as 24th Tirthankara was Mahavira.


According to the Jainism tradition, each descendant will undergo 5 life stages of events.

Pancha Kalyanaka in Sanskrit means 5 stages of life events. The 1st stage in Sanskrit is called Garbha, which means being in the mother’s womb of protection. The 2nd stage in Sanskrit called Janma, which means the process of appearing in this world. The 3rd stage in Sanskrit called tapa, which means the process of confession of sins via practices of hardship practices. The 4th stage in Sanskrit called Keivalyagyana which means the attainments of higher understanding of knowledge and wisdom. The 5th stage in Sanskrit called Moksha which means liberation from all suffering in world while dying.


Spiritual Teachings of Jainism in General:

•Practice of Non-harming and Non-violence (Sanskrit:Ahimsa)

•Practice of Perceiving the Reality in a Non-absolute way (Sanskrit:Anekantavada)

•Practice of Non-attachments (Sanskrit:Aparigraha)

•Practice of severe hardships and physical mortifications (Asceticism)


「耆那教」的創位者叫巴旺加(Rishabhadeva)。他是第一位師祖(1st Descendant),根據耆那教的傳統叫(古印度文:1st Tirthankara),總共有大約二十四位師祖(古印度文:24 Tirthankara)。他出生於古印度東北部的一個古城叫「阿約提亞」,英文(Ayodhya)。這城位於新德里(New Delphi) 以東。根據耆那教的年表,巴旺加太約生於592x10x18次方年。(公元前400年),他到年終達到「解脫」(Liberation) 的境界,死在岡仁波齊峰,(英文:Mount Kailash/Mount Asthapada 八足山)位於西藏山脈。


之後的後繼成祖師為「巴濕伐那陀」(古印度文:Parshvanath) 為第二十三位師祖 (古印度文:23rd Tirthankara)。「摩訶毘羅」(古印度文:Mahavira) 為第二十四位師祖 (古印度文:24th Tirthankara)。


耆那教大約於公元前500至公元前700年創立。(500-700BCE)。

根據耆那教的傳統,一個師祖的一生有5個生命的階段。(古印度文:Pancha Kalyanaka)

第一個階段叫「胎藏」(古印度文:Garbha)意思是胎還在母懐腹中。第二個階段叫「出生」印度文:Janma)意思是旨出生在世。第三個階段叫「悔罪」印度文:tapa)意思是旨透過苦修去冼除罪過。第四個階段叫「全知」(印度文:Keivalyagyana)意思是旨在生中通達高崇知慧的階段。(英文:Omniscience /enlightenment) 第五個階段叫「解脫」(印度文:Moksha)意思是旨在生中通達高崇知慧的階段。(英文:Liberation when dying)

耆那教的精神教義同哲學:

•「不殺生同傷害」(古印度文:Ahimsa/英文:Non-violence)

•「多方面現實論/非絕對論」(古印度文:Anekantavada/英文:Non-absolutism)

•「不執著」(古印度文:Aparigraha/英文:Non-attachment)

• 透過苦行同禁慾主義例如脫衣(Nakedness),禁食(Fasting)去壓制身體的慾望而助長心靈同思想達到更高崇的修行。(英文:Asceticism)

Buddhism「佛教」

The founder of Buddhism was Gautama Buddha. He was born in 563 BCE, in a place called Lumini, Lumini is located in Nepal. He died at a place called Kushinagar which was within Malla Republic as one the 16 ancient Indian nations.


Spiritual Teachings of Buddhism in General:

•Four Noble Truth

•Four principles of Noble Truth are:

•Dukkha (Existence of Suffering)

•Samudaya (Existence of the Seeds of Suffering)

•Nirodha (Action to Cease Suffering)

•Magga (Attainment of Liberation by practice of Noble Eightfold Path)

•The practice of Eightfold Path are:

1. Right View

2. Right Resolve

3. Right Speech

4. Right Act

5. Right Livelihood

6. Right Effort

7. Right Mindfulness

8. Right Samadhi

「佛教」的創立者叫釋迦牟尼悉(公元前563年—公元前483年)(563BCE-483BCE)英文:Gautama Buddha)。他出生在一個地方叫「藍毗尼」(Lumini),這地方位於尼泊爾(Nepal)境內的德賴平原的釋迦族(Shakya Republic)。他死在一個地方叫「拘尸那揭羅」(古印度文:Kushinagar),拘尸那揭羅位於未羅國,末羅國(古印度文:Malla Republic)是古印度16大國之一。


佛教的精神教義同哲學:

•「四聖諦」(英文:Four Noble Truth)

•「四聖諦」為1. 「困苦」(古印度文:Dukkha/英文:Suffering); 2.「困苦之源」(古印度文:Samudaya/英文:Cause of Suffering); 3.「停止困苦」(古印度文:Nirodha/英文:End of Suffering); 4. 「解脫」(古印度文:Magga/英文:Liberation via Noble Eightfold Path 八聖道分)

八聖道分為 「正視」(Right view); 「正思惟」(Right resolve); 「正言」(Right speech); 「正道」(Right act); 「正生」(Right livelihood); 「正力」(Right effort); 「正思」(Right mindfulness); 「正唔」(Right samadhi)



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