Origin of Spiritual Teachings of Yoga

Vedas

 

The teachings of the Vedas descend from the realm of Vedic religion during the Indo-Aryan invasion within the late Harappa phase of Indus Valley Civilization. Vedas means knowledge in Sanskrit. They are collection of texts called Shruti (Sruti in Sankrit), written by hearing or by direct experience by ancient Indian Vedic monks and poets called Rishi in Sanskrit. This poet or hymnodies are recordings of the spiritual teachings within the Hinduism culture and religious complex. These teachings consist of both the religious part and philosophical part.

The philosophical part recorded the understanding and science of the mind; the concept of reality, seeking the true spiritual identity (Atman in Sanskrit), sensual withdrawal by the control of mind and senses. The notion of suffering and liberation . These collective teachings were the most ancient context of Yoga.

 

At that time, the classical poetry scriptures of the ancient Indian post-Vedic period were greatly divided into four classical records, which were:

1) Rig Veda recorded in 1200-800 BC

2) Yajur Veda recorded in 1200-1000 BC

3) Sama Veda recorded in 1200-1000 BC

4) Atharva Veda recorded in 1000-900 BC

 

Each of the four classical records bears records of four different doctrines, 1) the Song of Praise (Samhitas), 2) the Brahmanas, 3) the Book of the Forest (Aranyakas), and 4). Upanishads. The mid-period hymns are religious with the Sanskrit books, while the forest books are philosophical with the Upanishads. The period begins with the Upanishads as the beginning of ancient yoga philosophy, which emphasizes thought, spiritual purity, the cultivation of finding the true self of the mind (Atman), the renunciation of the negative shackles of life behavior and thought, and the theory of karma (Law of Karma). 

 

Vedas(詩歌經書)

 

公元前1500-500年的後吠陀期間,出現了一些吠陀期間的憎侶詩人(Vedic Seers),或被稱偉大瑜伽修練者(Great yogis), 印度古文稱(Rishi)。這些憎侶詩人經每一天刻苦的精神冥想修練(Austere Spiritual Meditation),將能領悟到的心靈真我,生命智慧的體驗及他們所信奉的吠陀教的宗教禮儀中的詩詞,同透過一種聆聽的過程或自我經歴的階段(古印度文:Anubhava/英文:Direct experience)去寫作出一種書籍叫(古印度文:Sruti/ 英文:Shruti)。敬拜儀式的步驟全部被紀錄在吠陀期的詩歌經書(Vedas),而這些詩歌經書。

 

當時古印度後吠陀期古典詩歌經書大分為四大古典記錄,它們分别是:

 1)梨俱吠陀(Rig Veda)公元前1200-800年記載

 2)夜柔吠陀(Yajur Veda)公元前1200-1000年記載

 3)娑摩吠陀(Sama Veda)公元前1200-1000年記載

 4)阿闥婆吠陀(Atharva Veda)公元前1000-900年記載

 

每一個四大古典紀錄分別記戴四種不同的教義的記錄,1)贊歌(Samhitas), 2)梵書(Brahmanas), 3)森林書(Aranyakas), 4)奧義書(Upanishads)。期中贊歌同梵書是屬宗教性,而森林書同奧義書是屬哲學性。期中主要以奧義書為古代瑜伽哲學的起頭,是講求思想,精神的潔淨,尋找心靈真我(Atman)的修練,講求生活行為思想負面束縛的解脫(Renunciation),期中也有論說因果報應的理論(Law of Karma)。

Upanishad

 

Upanishads were recorded sections within the Vedas that reflected on the earliest form of the philosophical teachings of Yoga.

 

Between 1500 and 500 BC, there were hundreds of different editions of the Upanishads of the same length. There are ten major versions of the period, and their main teaching is to find the 「atman」 in the mind by cutting off distractions. 

 

 Kena Upanishad, is recorded in the verses of Sama Veda. The Book of Why the Upanishads consists of about four chapters and thirty-six sentences. 

 

 The philosophical teachings of yoga recorded in this Upanishads:

  1. The guide should think and look for a real space behind the real space that the sense can experience, and this real space is controlled by the Universe (Higher Reality).

  2. This real space above the senses is that people cannot borrow eyes, ears, mouths, and thoughts to understand the same understanding. As in the Bible, Isaiah (55:8), 「The Lord says, 'My mind is not your thoughts, my ways are not your thoughts, my ways are not your ways.'」

Upanishad(奧義書)

公元前1500-500年期間,有數以百計不同版本同長短的奧義書。期中有十大主要的版本,它們主要的教義是要透過隔除雜念去尋找心靈內的「真我」(Atman)。

 

其中一個版本叫,「因何奧義書」(Kena Upanishad),分別記載於娑摩吠陀(SamaVeda)的詩歌經文中。「因何奧義書」大約共有四章,三十六句。

 

記載在這奧義書內的瑜伽哲學教義:

  • 引導人應思索同尋找在感觀能體驗的現實空間之外,背後另有一現實空間,這現實空間受到宇宙主宰掌管(Higher Reality)

  • 這個在感觀之上的現實空間是人不能夠藉眼,耳,口,思想去明解同領唔。如聖經以賽亞書(55:8)「耶和華説:我的意念非同你們的意念,我的道路,非同你們的意念,我的道路,非同你們的道路。」