Origin & Development of Hatha Yoga

Brief introduction:

 

Matsyendra Natha was born in 1000 AD in an ancient state called the Kamarupa. The kingdom (350-1140 AD) was located in North Bengal. 

 

Considered the original founder of Hatha Yoga, he incorporated the work of Tantric Philosophy into this branch of Yoga. He incorporated the traditional Hatha Yoga 「Body Purification Method」(Shatkarma), 「Physical Postures」(Asana), 「Breathing Method」(Pranayama), and 「Hand Gestures」 (Mudra), Pelvic Floor Contraction Techniques (Bundhas), 「Subtle Body」 includes Chakras, Nadis, Prana, and 「Energy Wind Breath」 (Vayus). 

 

Early works:

His writings include Kanlajnananirnaya, Matsyendrasamhita and Akula Virarantra Records his work at Hatha Yoga.

簡介:

馬辛德拉納塔出生於公元後1000年,一個古代國家叫「迦摩縷波國」(Kamarupa)。這王國(公元後350-1140年)位於北孟加拉(North Bengal)。

 

他被認為是哈噠瑜伽最早的創始人,他把坦特里克哲學(Tantric Philosophy)的作品融入瑜伽(Hatha Yoga)的這一分支。他融入了傳統哈噠瑜伽所修練的「身體淨化法」(Shatkarma),「體立法」(Asana),「呼吸法」(Pranayama),及坦特里克哲學所修練的「手印」(Mudra),「收束法」(Bundhas),「精細體學」(Subtle Body)包括「脈輪」(Chakras),「能量系統」(Nadis),「氣」(Prana),及「能量風息」(Vayus)。

 

早期作品:

他的著作如「考拉伊納納尼納亞」(Kanlajnananirnaya),「馬西延德拉薩姆希塔」(Matsyendrasamhita)和「阿庫拉-維拉坦特拉」(Akula Virarantra)記錄了他在哈噠瑜伽的作品。

 

Since the original development of Hatha Yoga by Matsyendra Natha, other hatha yoga masters started to came into the contribution of the teachings of hatha yoga throughout the 1800-1900AD. 

 

List of hatha yoga masters (1800-1900AD)

  • 斯瓦米·維卡南達(Swami Vivekananda), (1863年1月12日-1902年7月4日) 在西方舉辦了瑜伽講座。

  • 斯瓦米·西瓦南達 (Swami Sivananda), (1887年9月8日-1963年7月14日)

 

 

  • T.克里希納馬查里亞 (T. Krishnamacharya), (1888年11月18日-1989年2月28日)

 

 

 

 


 

T. Krishna Macharya opened in 1934 at the Hatta Yoga School in Mysore, India. He is an Indian yoga teacher, yoga doctor and Sanskrit scholar. He had a major influence on the evolution and development of Hatha Yoga. He emphasized Viniyoga's technique, breathing combined with movement. His teaching style is 「Viniyoga」, which emphasizes the need-oriented teaching of the treatment of different people. His four yoga books are:

 

1)Yoga Makaranda (1934),

2)Yoga Sanagalu (1941),

3)Yoga Lahacia and

4)Yoga Valley (1988)


 

T.克里希納馬查里亞於1934年在印度邁索爾的哈塔瑜伽學校開學。他是印度瑜伽老師、瑜伽醫生和梵文學者。他對哈噠瑜伽的進化和發展具有重大影響。他強調,維尼亞薩(Viniyoga)的技術,呼吸結合運動。他的教學風格是 「Viniyoga」,強調注重需要的教導,對不同的人的治療。他的四本瑜伽書是:

 

1) 瑜伽馬卡蘭達(1934),

2) 瑜伽薩納加盧(1941),

3) 瑜伽拉哈西亞和

4) 瑜伽瓦利(1988).


 

 List of hatha yoga masters (1900-2000AD)

 

T.克里希納馬查里亞所教授的三位主要學生:

 

  • B.K.S.伊延加 (B.K.S Iyengar), (1918年12月14日-2014年8月20日)

 

 

 

 

  • T.K.V.德西卡查爾 (TKV Desikachar), (1938年6月21日至2016年8月8日)

 

 

 

  • 帕塔比·喬伊斯 (Pattabhi Jois), (1915年7月26日-2009年5月18日)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Traditional Hatha Yoga System

 

1)Viniyoga Yoga

This form of yoga was originally developed by Shri Developed by Krishna Macharia, continued by his son T.K.V. Desikachar, emphasises the benefits of internal healing of the posture rather than the external achievements of the posture. Posture is prescribed according to the health status and needs of the individual. Emphasis is placed on the correct coordination of breathing and movement. 

 

2)Iyengar Yoga

This form of yoga was developed by B.K.S Iyengar, which emphasizes the correction of the alignment of the body within the yoga posture: the precision of body positioning and joint alignment can be enhanced by applying yoga chairs, yoga blocks, supports, and props such as walls and ropes. 

 

3)Ashtanga Yoga Vinyasa

This form of yoga is developed by Pattabhi Jois, it emphasizes the Vinyasa technique to synchronize ujjayi breathing with movements in accordance with a specific set sequence, the primary series sequence as the basic sequence, focusing on the treatment, treatment or curing of the body, which is known as「Yoga Therapy」(Yoga Chikitsa). Chikitsa means 「healing」in Sanskrit.

 

4)Sivananda Yoga

This form of yoga is developed by Swami Sivananda, it emphasizes a sequence of 12 postures: sun salutation, breathing exercises, relaxation and mantra chanting. 


 

Contemporary Hatha Yoga System

 

1)Hot Yoga

「Hot Yog」 is designed to practice a series of yoga movements in a room at a high temperature of about 36 degrees Celsius. Practitioners sweat and dehumidify in environments with high temperatures and humidity. The idea for this hot environment comes from  (Bikram Choudhury) in order to mimic the humid and hot environment of India. This yoga helps to improve muscle stretch and joint softness and helps to eliminate toxins from the body. 

2)Forest Yoga

Forest Yoga is a modern yoga school founded in 1982 by Ana T. Forrest. Emphasizing a longer period of support within each movement, the strength of the abdominal muscles is implicitly characterized. It is a discipline that requires practitioners to face physical and emotional distress through deep training. 

 

3)Jivamukti Yoga

 Jivamukti Yoga was founded by David Life and Sharon Gannon in 1984. This mixed breathing yoga continuous movement  (Vinyasa) practice techniques are combined with 5 aspects of practice such as 「Scripture」, 「Charity Yoga」 (Bhakti), 「Harmless Practice」 (Ahimsa), 「Musical Yoga」(Nada), 「Meditation」, 「Environmentalism」, 「Vegetarianism」(Veganism).


 

4)Aerial Yoga
 Aerial Yoga is a hybrid yoga founded by Michelle Dortignac in 2006. This yoga blends traditional yoga movements, Pilates with dance moves. Practitioners must use hammocks to coordinate the movements.

 

古代傳統修練系統

 

1)維尼約加瑜伽(Viniyoga)

這種形式的瑜伽最初是由什里·克里希納馬查里亞開發的,由他的兒子T.K.V.德西卡查爾(T.K.V Desikachar)繼續,強調姿勢的內部癒合的好處,而不是姿勢的外部成就。姿勢根據個人的健康情況和需要規定。強調正確協調調節呼吸和運動。

 

2)伊延加瑜伽(Iyengar Yoga)

這種形式的瑜伽是由B.K.S Iyengar開發的,它強調糾正瑜伽姿勢內身體的對齊:通過應用瑜伽椅、瑜伽塊、支撐物以及牆壁和繩索等道具,可以增強身體定位和關節對齊的精度。

 

3)阿什坦加瑜伽(Ashtanga Yoga Vinyasa)

這種形式的瑜伽是由帕塔比·喬斯(Pattabhi Jois)開發的,它強調維尼亞薩技術,以運動同步的ujjayi呼吸與運動按照特定的設定序列,初級系列序列作為基本的基本序列,專注於治療,治療或固化的身體,這被稱為「瑜伽奇基察」(Yoga Chikitsa)。奇基察意思是「治療」。

 

4)西瓦南達瑜伽(Sivananda Yoga)

這種形式的瑜伽是由斯瓦米·西瓦南達(Swami Sivananda)開發的,它強調12個姿勢的序列:太陽問候,呼吸練習,放鬆和口頭禪吟唱。


 

現代修練系統

 

1)高溫瑜伽(Hot Yoga)

「高溫瑜伽」是設計在一個高溫度大約攝氏36度(36 Degree Celcius)房間內練習一系列的瑜珈動作。修習者在高溫同濕度高的環境下會流汗同去濕。這個高溫的環境的義念來自(Bikram Choudhury),目的是模仿印度濕熱的環境。這種瑜珈有助提升肌肉伸展度同關節柔軟度,有助排除身體毒素。

 

2)福雷斯特瑜伽(Forest Yoga)

「森林瑜伽」(Forest Yoga), 是一門現代的瑜伽門派,這門派由(Ana T.Forrest)於1982 年創立。強調較長的時間支持在每一個動作內,仲對腹部肌肉的力量同隱定性。是一門要求修練者透過深層的鍛諫去面對身體同情緒的困擾。

 

3)吉瓦穆克提瑜伽(Jivamukti Yoga)

吉瓦穆克提瑜伽(Jivamukti Yoga)是由 David Life 同 Sharon Gannon 自1984 年創立。這門派混合呼吸連合瑜伽連續動作(Vinyasa)的修練技巧配合5方面的修行例如「讀經」(Scripture), 「慈善瑜伽」(Bhakti), 「無傷害的修行」(Ahimsa), 「音樂瑜伽」(Nada), 「冥想修練」(Meditation), 「愛護環保」(Environmentalism), 「素食主義」(Veganism)。


 

4)空中瑜伽(Aerial Yoga)

空中瑜伽(Aerial Yoga)是一門混合性瑜伽(Hybrid yoga), 由Michelle Dortignac自2006年創立。這門瑜伽融合了傳統瑜伽動作,普拉提(Pilates)同舞蹈動作。修練者須運用吊床(hammock)去配合動作。